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Jump to. Explore this to find out more about HIV prevention for people who inject drugsbarriers to HIV preventionsantiretroviral treatment and what needs to happen next. It is estimated that people who inject drugs are 22 times more likely to acquire HIV than among the rest of the population. On average one in ten new HIV infections are caused by the sharing of needles. Despite the increased risk of HIV for people who inject drugs they are among those with the least access to HIV prevention, treatment and Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles. This is because drug use is often criminalised and stigmatised.

If a needle has been used by an HIV-positive person, infected blood in the needle can be injected into the next person who uses that needle. Furthermore, injecting drug users are more likely to test for HIV late, increasing the chance of onward HIV transmission. A lack of awareness or education about safe injecting is another major reason for sharing needles. Other reasons for needle sharing are that it is part of a social and cultural norm among people who inject drugs, and that it can act as a form of bonding.

Legislation that criminalises possession and use of drugs for personal consumption le to more risky forms of drug use. Along with other punitive policies and practices which discriminate against people with a history of drug use, criminalisation reinforces the marginalisation of people who inject drugs while also discouraging them from accessing harm reduction and other healthcare services. This hugely increases vulnerability to HIV infection, 10 and has a negative effect on HIV prevention and treatment outcomes.

Drug paraphernalia laws in some countries make it an offence to distribute or possess syringes for non-medical purposes, with people arrested for carrying them. This forces people to avoid carrying new needles, and use shared ones instead. When we [inject] drugs we need to be quick. Police might come at any Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles.

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For that reason In some countries police crackdowns on drug use and users have targeted healthcare and harm reduction services. This discourages people who inject drugs from accessing these services and has contributed to the spread of HIV. Despite overwhelming evidence that it has little or no impact on the of people using drugs, the 'war on drugs' approach, which criminalises and uses aggressive policing and sanctions against drug users, continues to prevail in many countries.

Poverty and drug taking are linked in a complex and mutually reinforcing manner which contributes to the spread of HIV. The majority of drug users, including people who inject drugs, are relatively poor in the societies in which they Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles.

Moreover, social and economic disadvantage is strongly associated with drug use disorder when recurrent drug use becomes a detriment to people's health, work, school or home life. Economic marginalisation may lead to behaviour associated with increased risk of HIV such as sex work or selling sex for drugs.

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Although people who inject drugs constitute a key group in themselves, there is also an overlap between drug addiction and those involved in sex work. Individuals who fall into both are particularly vulnerable to HIV. In Central Asia, Afghanistan and Mongolia, HIV prevalence among female sex workers who also inject drugs is 20 times higher than sex workers who don't inject drugs. Women may be pressured to share needles and engage in high-risk sexual activities.

Women especially mothersare also more likely to conceal their drug-taking behaviour because of societal discrimination, and the threat of losing custody of their children. This discourages them from accessing medical care and HIV services. The predominantly punitive global response to drugs also means that around one in five prisoners worldwide are being held on drug-related charges.

In many countries, prisons remain environments with high levels of drug use and high prevalence of HIV. In this context, incarceration of drug users fuels HIV transmission, especially in overcrowded prisons where syringe sharing and unprotected sex is more common. Despite this, there are ificant gaps in prevention, treatment and harm reduction services in many prisons around the world.

In only eight countries had at least one needle and syringe programme in prison and only 43 have opioid substitution therapy OST. In many Asian countries, drug detention centres are compulsory, with drug users forced to spend time there with no access to OST or treatments for withdrawal symptoms.

Legalising and enforcing harm reduction methodsengaging people who inject drugs in the HIV response, and investing adequate funding in services for people who inject drugs, are essential to implementing effective HIV prevention services. Reducing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs needs a combination of approaches Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles as:. Access to mental health services, sexual health check-ups and condoms is necessary alongside harm reduction measures.

Efforts Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles to focus on prevention rather than simply awareness. These are effective in preventing HIV because they provide clean needles to drug users, and offer substitution medicines like methadone as an alternative to injecting drugs.

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Syringes that are used to inject drugs contain either a high, or a low 'dead-space' area, which is where fluid including blood collects after injecting. High dead-space syringes are often preferred because they are cheaper, come with detachable needles, and are more readily available. However, low dead-space syringes collect 1, times less fluid, meaning HIV cannot survive very long in this type of syringe.

Unfortunately, access to low dead-space syringes is sparse. These need to be supplied to NSPs and pharmacies. It is important that other forms of combination prevention are offered alongside PrEP, such as neeedle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, as these are the most effective ways of preventing HIV infection from injecting drugs. Can you support us and protect our future? The illegal nature of injecting drugs can create barriers to accessing adequate HIV prevention, testing and treatment services, making people who inject drugs more vulnerable to HIV.

Without adequate access to these services, there is a high risk that HIV will also be transmitted to sexual partners. Injecting drugs for purposes not prescribed by a doctor is illegal worldwide. The criminalisation of drug use and possession can hinder attempts to engage people who use drugs with available HIV services Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles may otherwise help to curb HIV. Decriminalisation would be a more effective approach. It would mean people who inject drugs would not be forced underground to conceal their habit and to escape arrest, but rather be free to engage in the HIV response and be active in protecting their own health.

In Portugal passed new drug laws downgrading the purchase, possession and consumption of small amounts of drugs. The law also put in place a wide range of prevention and harm reduction measures focused on high-risk groups and areas. The decade that followed saw a decline in crimes related to drug consumption, problematic drug use, drug-related harms and criminal justice overcrowding. The period also saw a steady decline in new HIV infections among people who inject drugs.

In only 78 new HIV cases were related to drug use. The continuous creation of new drugs, with new ways to take them creates a never-ending cycle of HIV exposure opportunities. Injection of amphetamine-type stimulants ATS is increasing in every region Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles the world, with an estimated However, very few harm reductions interventions are tailored to people who use ATS and there is an urgent need for adapted harm reduction interventions in light of the increasing ATS injecting.

A new drug named 'hagigat' caused an outbreak of HIV infections in Israel during Drug users switched from injecting heroin to injecting hagitat, which encourages socialising and needs more 'hits' per day. This led to higher s of people sharing needles. The use of image and performance enhancing drugs IPEDs is rising rapidly, especially in more developed nations such as the UK. This highlights that it is the injecting practice itself that is important to monitor, rather than the type of substance injected.

Although data for people who inject drugs is available, it is unknown how many young people inject drugs, or what the HIV prevalence among this group is. Young people are also likely to show more high-risk behaviour such as sharing needles or getting needles from unofficial places.

HIV prevention programmes typically overlook young people at risk of injecting drug use; few reach out to vulnerable youth to prevent them from starting to inject or help them to end their addiction if they have already started. Moreover, prevention programmes do not specifically address the issues that vulnerable young people face, such as peer pressure, unstable family homes or exclusion from school.

Some HIV prevention initiatives like OST may even deter young people because they require registration, parental consent or impose age restrictions. Funding low-cost harm reduction initiatives Beautiful lady looking real sex Needles as NSPs and OST is a much more cost-effective way of tackling HIV among people who inject drugs than having to pay for antiretroviral treatment ART for the rest of a person's life.

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Despite this, a deepening funding crisis is facing harm reduction services globally. The majority of countries that have a large HIV prevalence among their drug user population are middle-income countries. However, international HIV funding for these countries is shrinking as large donors such as the Global Fund shift their focus to low-income countries under the assumption that the funding gap for services will be filled by domestic resources.

While there has been an increase in domestic investment in HIV programmes in some countries, very few are prioritising HIV prevention for key populations including harm reduction for people who inject drugs. Under-investment in HIV prevention for people who inject drugs is often not a question of lack of resources but of allocation. Reallocating as little as 2. A shift of 7.

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HIV Risk Behaviors